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sâmbătă, 25 octombrie 2008

English Collocations (III) – Types of Collocation

There are many different types of collocations.

A. Adjectives and nouns

Jean always wears red or yellow or some other bright colour.
We had a brief chat about the exams but didn’t have time to discuss them properly.
Unemployement is a major problem for the government at the moment.
Improving the health service is another key issue for government.

B. Nouns and verbs

The economy boomed in the 1990s. [the economy was very strong]
The company has grown and now employs 50 more people than last year.
The company has expanded and now has branches in most major cities.
The two companies merged in 2003 and now form one very large corporation.
The company launched the product in 2002. [introduced the product]
The price increase poses a problem for us. [is a problem]
The Internet has created opportunities for our business. [brought new opportunities]

C. Noun + noun

As Sam read the lies about him, he felt a surge of anger. [literarly: a sudden angry feeling]
Every parent feels a sense of pride when their child does well or wins something.
I felt a pang of nostalgia when I saw the wold photos of the village where I grew up.

D. Verbs and expressions with prepositions

As Jack went on stage to receive his gold medal for the judo competition you could see his parents swelling with pride. [looking extremely proud]
I was filled with horror when I read the newspaper report of the explosion.
When she split juice on her new skirt the little girl burst into tears. [suddenly started crying]

E. Verbs and adverbs

She pulled steadily on the rope and helped him to safety. [pulled firmly and evenly]
He placed the beautiful vase gently on the window ledge.
‘I love you and want to marry you’, Derek whispered softly to Marsha.
She smiled proudly as she looked at the photos of her new grandson.

F. Adverbs and adjectives

They are happily married.
I am fully aware that there are serious problems. [I know well]
Harry was blissfully unaware that he was in danger. [Harry had no idea at all, often used about something unpleasant]


1. Complete each sentence with a collocation from A.

Come to my office ten minuts before the meeting so we can have ...
With her lovely dark hair Uma looks best when she wears ...
In your essay on the influence of TV, don’t forget to discuss these ...
There is some crime in our town but it isn’t ...

2. Replace the underlined words with a collocating verb from B.

We are going to introduce an exciting new product in June.
The economy was extremely high 20 yeard ago.
The new university they are planning will provide a lot of job opportunities.
There are always some problems when two companies join together but I think it will be worth it in the long run.
The increase in oil prices certainly creates a problem for us.
The company got bigger and has now added children’s clothing to its product range.

3. Choose the correct feeling to complete each sentence.


Most older people feel a slight pang of ... as they think back on their schooldays.
Carla’s father was filled with ... when he saw that she had dyed her beautiful black hair blonde.
When Paul saw how harshly the poor were treated by the wealthy landowners he felt a surge of ...
Swelling with ..., Dan watched his daughter pick up her violin and play.
When she saw her exam results, Kate burst into ...
If people have a sense of ... in their town, they are more likely to behave well there.

4. Look at E and F and choose the correct adverb to complete these sentencens.

Perhaps it’s a good thing that Ken’s ... unaware of what people really think of him.
I am ... aware that there will be problems whatever we decide.
Nadya smiled ... as she watched the children playing happily in the garden.
My grandparents have been ... married for 45 years.
Place the glasses ... in the box – they’re verry fragile.
Paul whispered ... in Anna’s ear that he would always love her.

5. Which of the sections A-F would each of there collocations fit into?

make a decision
blissfuly happy
tread carefully
a surge of emotion
acutely embarrasing
roar with laughter
a key factor
prices rise
a ginger cat
burst into something



a brief chat
bright colours
major problems
the key issue

create opportunities for
has grown



B - F - E - C - F - D - A - B - A - D

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